高等教育

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高等教育後の卒業生は、卒業式で卒業証書を受け取ります。

高等教育はある高等教育の賞につながる学位呼ばれる高い教育、高等教育、第3レベルまたは高等教育は、オプションの最終段階で、正式な学習が完了した後に発生した中等教育これは、2011年版国際標準教育分類構造のレベル6、7、および8を表しています高等教育非度レベルでは、時にはと呼ばれ、さらに教育継続教育高等教育とは異なるとして。

高等教育へのアクセス権[編集]

高等教育へのアクセス権は、多くの国際人権文書で言及されています1966年国連 経済的、社会的および文化的権利に関する国際規約は、第13条で、「高等教育は、能力に基づいて、あらゆる適切な手段によって、特に、無料の教育」。では、ヨーロッパ、第2条欧州人権条約の第一議定書、1950年に採択し、保証するために、すべての締約当事者に義務づける教育への権利を

定義[編集]

また、高等教育、第3レベルまたはと呼ばれる高い教育、高等教育は、オプションの最終段階で、正式な学習が完了した後に発生した中等教育[要出典]

1997年国際標準教育分類では、当初、1997年版のスキーマですべての高等教育をまとめて分類していました。それらはレベル5およびレベル6の博士課程と呼ばれていました。2011年に、これは構造の2011バージョン改良および拡張しました。高い学部レベルでの教育、修士および博士課程レベルはレベル6、7、8非度レベルになった高等教育と呼ばれることもある、さらに教育継続教育は、いくつかの高いコースのレベル5で、ISCED 2011レベル4を並べ替えました。[1]

初等教育基礎教育を超えて進学する生徒が少なかった時代、「高等教育」という言葉は中等教育を指すためによく使われ、混乱を招く可能性がありました。[注1]これは、14歳から18歳(米国)または11歳から18歳(英国とオーストラリア)の子供向けのさまざまな学校の高校という用語の由来です[2]

プロバイダー[編集]

米国では、高等教育をによって提供され、大学アカデミー大学神学校温室、および技術の研究機関を含め、および特定の大学レベルの機関、専門学校、貿易学校、受賞度、他のキャリアベースの大学。高等教育非度レベルでは、時にはと呼ばれ、さらに教育継続教育高等教育とは異なるとして。[要出典]

高等教育には、教育、研究、厳格な応用作業(医学部歯科学校など)、大学の社会福祉活動が含まれます。[3]

教育の領域内では、学部レベルとそれを超えて大学院レベル(または大学院レベル)の両方が含まれます。後者のレベルの教育は、特に北米では、大学院と呼ばれることがよくあります。特定の程度に固有のスキルに加えて、あらゆる職業の潜在的な雇用主は、批判的思考分析的推論スキル、チームワークスキル、情報リテラシー倫理的判断、意思決定スキル、話し方と書き方の流暢さの証拠を探しています。問題解決スキル、およびリベラルアーツと科学の幅広い知識。[4]

歴史[編集]

高等教育の最古の機関[どれ? ]紀元前5世紀から2世紀にかけて、ユーラシアのいくつかの主要な文化圏に出現しました。[どこ? ] ギリシャの世界では、プラトンのアカデミーアリストテレスのリュケイオン、その他の哲学的・数学的な学校が、特にプトレマイオス朝のエジプトのアレクサンドリア、他の施設のモデルになりました。インドでは、Takṣaśilāの街[いつ? ]、後にナーランダの偉大な仏教僧院は、遠く離れた地域からでも学生や教授を魅了しました。[5]中国では、漢王朝五儒教の古典を教えるために椅子を設立し、それから-124年に大学校(太学)は帝国政権のために幹部を訓練するために。[6] [7]これらの高等教育機関はすべて、文化的影響力の範囲内で他の学校のモデルになりました。[要出典]

425年、ビザンチン帝国の皇帝テオドシウス2世は、公務員を訓練するために31人の教授を擁するパンディダクテリオンを設立したことで革新を遂げました。 7世紀から8世紀にかけて、西ヨーロッパに「大聖堂学校」が設立されました。一方、最初のメドレサはイスラム帝国で設立されました。当初は主要なモスクの敷地内にある単なる小学校でしたが、次第に中等教育、後に高等教育へと発展しました。これらの学校の知的レベルがどれほど高くても、それらを「大学」と呼ぶのは時代錯誤です。彼らの組織と目的は、西ヨーロッパで12世紀から次のように設立された教会と国家の両方から独立した学生と教師の企業とは著しく異なっていました。Universitas Studiorum.[citation needed]

According to UNESCO and Guinness World Records, the University of al-Qarawiyyin in Fez, Morocco is the oldest existing continually operating higher educational institution in the world.[8][9] and is occasionally referred to as the oldest university by scholars.[10] Undoubtedly, there are older institutions of higher education, for example, the University of Ez-Zitouna in Montfleury, Tunis, was first established in 737. The oldest university in the world is the University of Bologna, founded in 1088. [11][12][13][14][15]

20th century[edit]

Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who mostly studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.[16][17][18] In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow later called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education.[19] Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less likely to become unemployed than less educated workers.[20][21]

21st century[edit]

In recent years, universities have been criticized for permitting or actively encouraging grade inflation.[22][23] In addition, the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, aggravating graduate unemployment, underemployment, overqualification, credentialism and educational inflation.[24][25] Some commentators have suggested that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education is rapidly making certain aspects of the traditional higher education system obsolete.[26]

Types of provider in the United States[edit]

General[edit]

The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology usually includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects (although limited offerings of internships or SURF programs attempt to provide practical applications). In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools usually concentrates on practical applications, with very little theory.

In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, and usually in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally, professionally, and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is almost always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universities. Requirements for admission to such high-level graduate programs is extremely competitive, and admitted students are expected to perform well.

Mean financial wealth of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Mean income of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010

When employers in any profession consider hiring a college graduate, they are looking for evidence of critical thinking, analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, communication skills (using both text and speech), problem solving skills, and a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. However, most employers consider the average graduate to be more or less deficient in all of these areas.[27][28][29]

In the United States, there are large differences in wages and employment associated with different degrees. Medical doctors and lawyers are generally the highest paid workers, and have among the lowest unemployment rates. Among undergraduate fields of study, science, technology, engineering, math, and business generally offer the highest wages and best chances of employment, while education, communication, and liberal arts degrees generally offer lower wages and a lower likelihood of employment.[20][30]

Liberal arts[edit]

Academic areas that are included within the liberal arts include great books, history, languages including English, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, religious studies, science, environmental science, sociology and theater.

Engineering[edit]

Teaching engineering is teaching the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to design, build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. It may encompass using insights to conceive, model and scale an appropriate solution to a problem or objective. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of technology and types of application. Engineering disciplines include aerospace, biological, civil, chemical, computer, electrical, industrial and mechanical.

Performing arts[edit]

The performing arts differ from the plastic arts or visual arts, insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face and presence as a medium; the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint, which can be molded or transformed to create a work of art.

Performing arts institutions include circus schools, dance schools, drama schools and music schools.

Plastic or visual arts[edit]

The plastic arts or visual arts are a class of art forms, that involve the use of materials, that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. Examples are painting, sculpture, and drawing.

Higher educational institutions in these arts include film schools and art schools.

Vocational[edit]

Higher vocational education and training takes place at the non-university tertiary level. Such education combines teaching of both practical skills and theoretical expertise. Higher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education such as that offered by institutions of vocational education, which are more colloquially known as trade schools. Higher vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge.

Professional higher education[edit]

This describes a distinct form of higher education that offers a particularly intense integration with the world of work in all its aspects (including teaching, learning, research and governance) and at all levels of the overarching Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area. Its function is to diversify learning opportunities, enhance employability, offer qualifications and stimulate innovation, for the benefit of learners and society.

The intensity of integration with the world of work (which includes enterprise, civil society and the public sector) is manifested by a strong focus on application of learning. This approach involves combining phases of work and study, a concern for employability, cooperation with employers, the use of practice-relevant knowledge and use-inspired research.[31]

Examples of providers of professional higher education may include graduate colleges of architecture, business, journalism, law, library science, optometry, pharmacy, public policy, human medicine, professional engineering, podiatric medicine, scientific dentistry, K-12 education, and veterinary medicine.

Statistics[edit]

A 2014 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development states that by 2014, 84 percent of young people were completing upper secondary education over their lifetimes, in high-income countries. Tertiary-educated individuals were earning twice as much as median workers. In contrast to historical trends in education, young women were more likely to complete upper secondary education than young men. Additionally, access to education was expanding and growth in the number of people receiving university education was rising sharply. By 2014, close to 40 percent of people aged 25–34 (and around 25 percent of those aged 55–64), were being educated at university.[32]

Recognition of studies[edit]

The Lisbon Recognition Convention stipulates that degrees and periods of study must be recognised in all of the Signatory Parties of the Convention.[33]


See also[edit]

  • Category:Higher education by country
  • List of higher education associations and alliances
  • Governance in higher education
  • Graduation
  • Higher education accreditation
  • Higher education bubble
  • Higher education policy
  • Higher Education Price Index
  • Institute
  • UnCollege
  • Hochschule
  • League of European Research Universities
  • Technical and Further Education (TAFE)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For example, Higher Education: General and Technical, a 1933 National Union of Teachers pamphlet by Lord Eustace Percy, which is actually about secondary education and uses the two terms interchangeably.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Revision of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), retrieved 05-04-2012.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Pucciarelli F., Kaplan Andreas M. (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education: Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, Volume 59
  4. ^ "Employers Judge Recent Graduates Ill-Prepared for Today's Workplace, Endorse Broad and Project-Based Learning as Best Preparation for Career Opportunity and Long-Term Success" (Press release). Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  5. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji, Ancient Indian education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (2nd ed.). Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1989
  6. ^ Étienne Balazs, La Bureaucratie céleste (recherches sur l’économie et la société de la Chine traditionnelle), Paris, Gallimard, 1968
  7. ^ Peter Tze Ming Ng, « Paradigm Shift and the State of the Field in the Study of Christian Higher Education in China », in Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie, 2001, n° 12, pp. 127-140
  8. ^ Oldest University
  9. ^ "Medina of Fez". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  10. ^ Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35)
  11. ^ Top Universities Archived 17 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine World University Rankings Retrieved 6 January 2010
  12. ^ Paul L. Gaston (2010). The Challenge of Bologna. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-57922-366-3. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  13. ^ Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3462-7, p. 55f.
  14. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47–55
  15. ^ mondial, UNESCO Centre du patrimoine. "The Porticoes of Bologna - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO Centre du patrimoine mondial (in French). Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  16. ^ Trow, Martin (1973) Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, Berkeley, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED091983&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED091983, accessed 1 August 2013
  17. ^ Brennan, John (2004) The social role of the contemporary university: contradictions, boundaries and change, in Center for Higher Education Research and Information (ed.)
  18. ^ Ten years on: changing education in a changing world (Buckingham: The Open University Press), https://www.open.ac.uk/cheri/documents/ten-years-on.pdf Archived 2017-05-25 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 9 February 2014
  19. ^ Trow, Martin (2007) [2005] Reflections on the transition from elite to mass to universal access: forms and phases of higher education in modern societies since WWII, Springer International Handbooks of Education volume 18, 2007, 243-280
  20. ^ a b "Risk-Based Student Loans". 2011-09-05. SSRN 1941070. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ OECD, Education at a Glance (2011)
  22. ^ Gunn, Andrew; Kapade, Priya (25 May 2018), "The university grade inflation debate is going global", University World News, retrieved 23 June 2019, The grading process has been compromised as universities are incentivised to meet the demands of their customers and graduate more students with top grades to boost their institutional ranking.
  23. ^ Baker, Simon (June 28, 2018), "Is grade inflation a worldwide trend?", The World University Rankings, Times Higher Education, retrieved June 23, 2019, Departments where enrollments were falling felt under pressure to relax their grading practices to make their courses more attractive, leading to an “arms race” in grade inflation.
  24. ^ Coates, Ken; Morrison, Bill (2016), Dream Factories: Why Universities Won't Solve the Youth Jobs Crisis, Toronto: Dundurn Books, p. 232, ISBN 9781459733770
  25. ^ Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David (2012), The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes, Oxford University Press, p. 208, ISBN 9780199926442
  26. ^ Kaplan, Andreas (2021), Higher education at the crossroads of disruption: the university of the 21st century, Emerald Publishing, ISBN 9781800715042
  27. ^ "Employers Judge Recent Graduates Ill-Prepared for Today's Workplace, Endorse Broad and Project-Based Learning as Best Preparation for Career Opportunity and Long-Term Success" (Press release). Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  28. ^ Crowley, Elizabeth (25 October 2019). "Tackling the future 'human' skills deficit together". Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  29. ^ "Employers Say Students Aren't Learning Soft Skills in College". Society for Human Resource Management. October 21, 2019. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  30. ^ "The Economic Value of College Majors" (Press release). Georgetown University. May 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  31. ^ "Harmonising Approaches to Professional Higher Education in Europe". Harmonising Approaches to Professional Higher Education in Europe. EURASHE. 2013. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  32. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (September 2014). "Higher levels of education paying off for young, says OECD". Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  33. ^ "Lisbon Recognition Convention". coe.int. Retrieved 28 May 2019.

External links[edit]

  • Association for the Study of Higher Education
  • American Educational Research Association
  • World Bank Tertiary Education
Preceded by
Grade 13
Higher education
age varies (usually 18-22)
Succeeded by
Graduate school